Thursday, November 21, 2013

Biogas monitoring process

Biogas monitoring is one of the significant works that determines quality production of biogas. Every step and every biomass fed to the system is monitored to have a scientific analysis to increase the productivity of biogas from the plant. Biogas monitoring technique gives us some quality result as why some process is producing more biogas than others and many more data. There are certain methods of monitoring. I would like to mention below biogas montiroing process. These are simple chemical process or chormatography process to analyse the biogas.
1. Titration:- This is a simple chemical process which shows the value of pH in the digester. Knowing th pH value of digester and maintaining it to optimum value as per research makes most output from biomass. If pH is increased too much or reduced too much then biogas production from biomass will be affected drastically. So, measurement of pH and maintaining is necessary for digester.
2. Gas chromatography:- Gas chromatography is used to analyse the component of gas that can't be decomposed.Typical uses of Gas Chromatography of biogas include testing the purity of a particular substance viz biogas, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, Gas Chromatography may help in identifying a compound. Inpreparative chromatography, This helps in analyzing the biogas and deciding the purity and different contents of biogas.
3.MIMS:- which is one of the new measuring methods that the researchers expect a lot
from. The equipment is able to continually register the accumulation of fatty acids in
the gas, which means that you have time to intervene if the process shows signs of
4.NIR:- which like MIMS is one of the new methods that there are great expectations
for. In this case, there are also online measurements, but instead of measuring the gas
quality, you register what takes place in the reactor using infrared radiation.

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Source and principle of biogas plant

Biogas plant
Biogas is produced by decomposition of organic waste in the absence of oxygen. The fuel so produced is a clean and efficient fuel. It is a mixture of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S).
The main constituent of biogas is methane (upto 75%).

Raw Materials Required

  • Cow and buffalo or other animal dung
  • Wastes of polutary farm
  • Agriculture wastes ( Husk, grass, weeds etc.)
  • Human excreta
  • Industrial wastes(Saw dust, wastes from food processing industries)
  • Domestic wastes (Vegetable peels, waste food materials)

Biogas production and utlization

Biogas production plant diagram
Biogas is produced by decomposition of organic matters in the absence of oxygen. These organic matters consist of cow dung, agriculture waste, kitchen waste, human excreta or other naturally found organic substance. These organic matters are supposed to be waste and are not used for any further things. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material and crops. But technical advancement led to converting these waste to production of biogas and organic manure. Both biogas and organic manures are highly beneficial things for the people. Biogas can be used for cooking; vehicle fuel in place of cng and organic fertilizers can be used as fertilizers in field.
Why biogas is required:-
Whole world is in crisis of energy, all are dependent on fuel. These fuels are going to exhaust soon apart from these things utilization of fuel is causing a huge problem to our environment. Global warming and

Monday, July 29, 2013

Heliostat field collector

For extremely high inputs of radiant energy, a multi-plicity of flat mirrors, or heliostats, using altazimuth mounts,can be used to reflect their incident direct solar radiation onto a common target as shown in Fig. 12. This is called the heliostat field or central receiver collector. By using slightly concave mirror segments on the heliostats, large amounts of thermal energy can be directed into the cavity of a steam generator to produce steam at high temperature and pressure. The concentrated heat energy absorbed by the receiver is transferred to a circulating fluid that can be stored and later used to produce power. Central receivers have several advantages:
1. They collect solar energy optically and transfer it to a single
receiver, thus minimizing thermal-energy transport requirements;

Saturday, July 27, 2013

Concentrated solar power technology

Dish stirling system
Concentrated-solar technology systems use mirrors or lenses with tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area. The concentrated light is then used as heat or as a heat source for a conventional power plant (solar thermoelectricity). The solar commentators used in CSP systems can often also be used to provide industrial process heating or cooling, such as in solar air-conditioning.
Different types of commentators produce different peak temperatures and correspondingly varying thermodynamic efficiencies, due to differences in the way that they track the sun and focus light. New innovations in CSP technology are leading systems to become more and more cost-effective.

A) Parabolic Trough:- In this type of reflector collector is at the focal length of parabolic reflector. As all reflected rays concentrates at that point and we can get maximum concentration of heat over there. The receiver is a tube consists of working fluid that transmits heat from one location to other location.The reflector follows the sun during the daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Working fluid is heated to 150- 350 °C and as it travels through receivers, its heat is used to produce electricity.